Deep Space Gateway
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|Placed by: Modelraketten.NL on 27-11-17 18:41 | E-mail: info(at)modelraketten.nl|
The Deep Space Gateway (DSG) is a crew-tended cis-lunar space station concept proposed for possible partnership between NASA and Roscosmos for construction in the 2020s.
The station would be used as a staging point for the proposed Deep Space Transport, which is a concept of a reusable vehicle that uses electric and chemical propulsion and would be specifically designed for crewed missions to destinations such as Mars.
If funded, the Gateway will be developed, serviced, and utilized in collaboration with commercial and international partners for use as a staging ground for robotic and crewed lunar surface missions and for travel to Mars.
|DSG: Components | Reaction of: Modelraketten.NL on 27-11-17 18:45 | E-mail: info(at)modelraketten.nl|
The early concept for the Deep Space Gateway is still evolving, and includes at least the following component modules:
* The Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) will be used to generate electricity for the space station and ion propulsion. It will be sent during the Exploration Mission 2.
* The Cislunar Habitation Module will be used for long duration habitation on board the space station. It will be sent during Exploration Mission 3 and will have a docking port for the Orion.
* The Gateway Logistics Module will be used for experiments and logistics onboard the space station. The equipment includes a robotic arm, which will be built by the Canadian Space Agency. It will be sent during Exploration Mission 4.
* The Gateway Airlock Module will be used for performing extravehicular activities outside the space station and will be the berth for the Deep Space Transport. It will be sent on the Exploration Mission 5.
|DSG: Distant Destinations | Reaction of: Modelraketten.NL on 27-11-17 18:54 | E-mail: info(at)modelraketten.nl|
|Deep Space Gateway to Open Opportunities for Distant Destinations
NASA is leading the next steps into deep space near the moon, where astronauts will build and begin testing the systems needed for challenging missions to deep space destinations including Mars. The area of space near the moon offers a true deep space environment to gain experience for human missions that push farther into the solar system, access the lunar surface for robotic missions but with the ability to return to Earth if needed in days rather than weeks or months.
The period of exploration in the vicinity of the moon will begin with the first integrated mission of the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the Orion spacecraft, and will continue as we explore further. NASA aims to begin a cadence of one flight per year after the second mission, and the agency has established an initial set of integrated human exploration objectives combining the efforts aboard the International Space Station, SLS and Orion, and other capabilities needed to support human missions to explore deep space.
Flight hardware for SLS and Orion is currently in production for the first and second missions, life support and related technologies are being tested on ISS, and habitation and propulsion development activities are also underway. NASA is working with domestic and international partners to solve the great challenges of deep space exploration. Missions in the vicinity of the moon will span multiple phases as part of NASA’s framework to build a flexible, reusable and sustainable infrastructure that will last multiple decades and support missions of increasing complexity.
Deep Space Gateway
This first phase of exploration near the moon will use current technologies and allow us to gain experience with extended operations farther from Earth than previously completed. These missions enable NASA to develop new techniques and apply innovative approaches to solving problems in preparation for longer-duration missions far from Earth.
In addition to demonstrating the safe operation of the integrated SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft, the agency is also looking to build a crew tended spaceport in lunar orbit within the first few missions that would serve as a gateway to deep space and the lunar surface. This deep space gateway would have a power bus, a small habitat to extend crew time, docking capability, an airlock, and serviced by logistics modules to enable research. The propulsion system on the gateway mainly uses high power electric propulsion for station running and the ability to transfer among a family of orbits in the lunar vicinity. The three primary elements of the gateway, the power and propulsion bus and habitat module, and a small logistics module(s), would take advantage of the cargo capacity of SLS and crewed deep space capability of Orion. An airlock can further augment the capabilities of the gateway and can fly on a subsequent exploration mission, Building the deep space gateway will allow engineers to develop new skills and test new technologies that have evolved since the assembly of the International Space Station. The gateway will be developed, serviced, and utilized in collaboration with commercial and international partners.
I envision different partners, both international and commercial, contributing to the gateway and using it in a variety of ways with a system that can move to different orbits to enable a variety of missions, said William Gerstenmaier, associate administrator for Human Exploration and Operations at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The gateway could move to support robotic or partner missions to the surface of the moon, or to a high lunar orbit to support missions departing from the gateway to other destinations in the solar system.
Deep Space Transport
The second phase of missions will prove that the agency’s capabilities built for humans can perform long duration missions beyond the moon. For those destinations farther into the solar system, including Mars, NASA envisions a deep space transport spacecraft. This spacecraft would be a reusable vehicle that uses electric and chemical propulsion and would be specifically designed for crewed missions to destinations such as Mars. The transport would take crew out to their destination, return them back to the gateway, where it can be serviced and sent out again. The transport would take full advantage of the large volumes and mass that can be launched by the SLS rocket, as well as advanced exploration technologies being developed now and demonstrated on the ground and aboard the International Space Station.
This second phase will culminate at the end of the 2020s with a one year crewed mission aboard the transport in the lunar vicinity to validate the readiness of the system to travel beyond the Earth-moon system to Mars and other destinations, and build confidence that long-duration, distant human missions can be safely conducted with independence from Earth. Through the efforts to build this deep space infrastructure, this phase will enable explorers to identify and pioneer innovative solutions to technical and human challenges discovered or engineered in deep space.
To achieve the agency's goal to extend humanity's presence in the solar system will require the best research, technologies and capabilities from international partners and the private sector. NASA will look to partners for potential contributions of spaceflight hardware and the delivery of supplemental resources. The gateway and transport could potentially support mission after mission as a hub of activity in deep space near the moon, representing multiple countries and agencies with partners from both government and private industry. NASA is open to new ideas of both a technical and programmatic nature suggestions as we develop, mature and implement this plan.
Last Updated: Aug. 4, 2017
Editor: Kathryn Hambleton
|Japans Lunar Dreams for the 2020s | Reaction of: Modelraketten.NL on 27-11-17 19:02 | E-mail: info(at)modelraketten.nl|
The Land of the Rising Sun hopes to be able to put its astronauts on the moon sometime during the 2020s as part of an international program to build a space station(Red. Deep Space Gateway) in the moons orbit, local Iomiuri newspapers reported, citing sources in the government.
Tokyo believes that contributing to the multinational mission and sharing Japanese technology in water and air purification and to protecting astronauts from radiation, will land it a spot at the station, from where it could eventually put an astronaut on the moon and boost Japan’s status as a space power.
NASA, together with other leading space agencies, is going to launch the construction of a modular station orbiting the moon sometime in the early 2020s as part of an ambitious project of sending astronauts beyond the International Space Station, Iomiuri wrote.
If the leading space agencies of Europe, Canada, Russia and Japan, now working together at the International Space Station, join the Deep Space Gateway program in exchange for contributing their space modules and transport ships, they could be able to send their astronauts to the future station in the moon's orbit.
NASA, for its part, is offerings to make the outpost available for training future expeditions to the moon's surface.
Space agencies are also mulling the idea of building a landing module to shuttle between the station and the moon.
|NASA evaluates EM-2 launch options | Reaction of: Modelraketten.NL on 08-12-17 00:41 | E-mail: info(at)modelraketten.nl|
|NASA evaluates EM-2 launch options for Deep Space Gateway PPE
December 4, 2017 by Philip Sloss
While NASA engages spacecraft industry help in studying concepts for design, development, test, and evaluation of the Power Propulsion Element (PPE), it is also studying where the anchor component of the proposed Deep Space Gateway (DSG) would orbit the Moon and how it would get there when launched as a part of Exploration Mission-2 (EM-2).
NASA recently awarded multiple contracts to industry to do a detailed study of the PPE that would be the first proposed piece of the Deep Space Gateway operating in cislunar space. A total amount of approximately $2.4 million was divided up in awards to Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital ATK, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and Space Systems/Loral.
In a presentation to the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Human Exploration and Operations Committee on November 30, PPE Program Director Dr. Michele Gates from the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland noted that kickoff meetings between NASA and the awardees to officially start work coincided with the committee meeting, starting the last week of November and continuing into the first week of December.
The kickoff meetings start the contract work for the 120-day study. Each of the awardees will provide an initial 45-day status briefing to NASA, which is planned for the January time-frame. That would be followed by draft study results at the 90-day point, and the final study results at 120 days.
PPE Study overview:
The awards were made after a new appendix was announced under the Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP-2) solicitation in July.
NASA began NextSTEP in late 2014 within the Advanced Exploration Systems Division of Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to do research and development (R&D) work with industry on deep space technology capabilities that could subsequently be purchased in commercial partnerships as a part of future NASA human spaceflight programs.
Appendix C, Power and Propulsion Element Studies, was published in August with a set of high-level capabilities and requirements sought for the PPE.
NASA Glenn is the lead for the PPE and in responses to NASASpaceFlight.com questions, Dr. Gates and Dr. Mike Barrett, the PPE project manager explained the purposes of the 120-day study.
The study objectives are to:
1) Identify and understand significant potential synergies between PPE specific capabilities and current and/or future commercially-available capabilities,
2) Evaluate and understand driving technical differences and implications between prior concepts and approaches developed under the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and the proposed concept for the PPE; and
3) To obtain data that supports NASA’s ability to define, derive, and validate the PPE requirements and a baseline mission concept, they wrote.
The output from the study will be briefings and reports that provide vendor results for the 23 study topics, Dr. Gates and Dr. Barrett also noted.
The current concept of the PPE, especially the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP), was heavily derived from conceptual work and technology R&D done as a part of ARRM. The spacecraft for that since-cancelled mission was sized with a large, high-power SEP system.
That electric propulsion R&D is continuing under the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), with technology demonstrations also being led by the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland.
Capabilities envisioned for the PPE include SEP for maneuvering and a hypergolic propulsion system for attitude control. Tanks for both the SEP system, which would use Xenon fuel, and the attitude control system would be refuelable.
The PPE would include two International Docking System Standard (IDSS) docking ports at either end and would also handle power and communications for the gateway.
The control mass for the PPE at launch on EM-2 is 7500 kilograms (kg), which would include the payload attachment hardware and a minimum of 1200 kg of Xenon in the 2000 kg class capacity tank.
The amount of xenon carried at launch is tradable, Dr. Gates and Dr. Barrett noted in the email, as factors such as PPE spacecraft mass and Space Launch System (SLS) Block 1B vehicle performance are better understood closer to flight.
The 23 study topics explore these areas and more, including integrating commercial spacecraft bus hardware with a SEP system, avionics and software integration, and rendezvous and docking of visiting vehicles.
These studies are very targeted at understanding in particular technical drivers and implications between previous concepts for utilization of this advanced SEP system in this Phase 1 of our Human Exploration Strategy, Dr. Gates said in her presentation to the NAC HEO committee.
Data would also be provided from industry that would support our ability to define, derive, and validate a set of NASA reference requirements and help us to flesh out what a partnership could look like with industry in providing this capability.
Introduced in March, 2017, the Deep Space Gateway concept envisions a human-tended vehicle that would serve as a staging point for exploration missions in cislunar space and beyond.
Consisting of relatively few modules when compared to the football field sized International Space Station (ISS), the gateway concept announced would be the staging point for a larger, self-contained Deep Space Transport vehicle that would be capable of flying crewed missions to Mars and back.
Another contrast with the ISS is that the DSG is not planned to support a permanent human presence. It is expected that the gateway will allow for an Orion total mission duration of 42 days, double its standalone capability of 21 days with a crew of four.
At this point, the gateway is only a concept to be studied, not a new program or project. NASA has not officially proposed the mission in an annual U.S. federal government budget cycle and relative to other multi-billion dollar programs in NASA's portfolio, only a small amount of money at this point is committed to conceptual studies such as these.
The earliest that Deep Space Gateway proposal could be funded is at the beginning of Fiscal Year 2019 in October, 2018, assuming that there is language signed into law allowing a formal project start.
This would not be the case if the U.S. government is funded through Continuing Resolutions, a situation that is now common throughout the fiscal year and is currently in effect for Fiscal Year 2018.
Although the proposal is not yet funded, it was given a mandate by the new Congress and President in March with passage and enactment of the NASA Transition and Authorization Act of 2017, which emphasized deep space exploration as one of the goals for NASA's human spaceflight programs, including the Orion spacecraft and SLS launch vehicle currently still in development.
The ARRM asteroid redirect concept proposed by the Obama Administration as an initial mission for Orion and SLS was funded by Congress at low levels for several years and was effectively cancelled this year.
HEOMD under Associate Administrator Bill Gerstenmaier, had already begun building up activities to study and better define alternate concepts and the Deep Space Gateway and Transport (DSG&T) concept was publicly introduced following enactment of the authorization as Public Law 115-10.
As proposed, the gateway would be started by the PPE and the modules would be launched with Orion as co-manifested payloads on SLS launches. The PPE would be followed by a habitation module brought by Orion as co-manifested on EM-3.
The proposal also includes an airlock module that would be launched with Orion on EM-5. Logistics for the facility would use a combination of commercial launch services and co-manifested SLS payloads on other Orion missions.
The concept has been evolving in talks that NASA is having with international space agencies that it is partnering with on the ISS.
Although the Deep Space Transport is highlighted in the concept, the gateway could also be used as a base camp for lunar landing spacecraft or for other spacecraft that would operate in other cislunar orbits, such as at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange points.
NASA has been evaluating operational concepts for missions to cislunar space since the asteroid redirect mission (ARM) concept was proposed.
In contrast to ARM that favored a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) around the Moon as a staging area (and which Orion will travel to on its EM-1 test flight), analysis of where the DSG might reside is leaning towards Near-Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHO).
Both types of orbits are within Orion's performance capabilities and both have relatively low demands on propellant for orbital maintenance, but the polar-oriented NRHOs have fewer eclipse periods than the equatorial DROs. Transfers from NRHOs to low-lunar orbit, such as a lander might use, would require less performance and take less time than from DROs.
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